2022 California Wildfire Preparedness Guide: What to know and how to stay safe
after *** series of deadly and destructive wildfires in our state, we thought we were prepared. There was no preparing for this particular fire. The list of what homeowners need to know is changing. It’s bigger than just just having *** go bag, firefighters are warning families, getting your family ready, getting your um we have *** first aid kit together to take new precautions and those are the types of things that we want people to be ready for well in advance rather than waiting till the last minute tonight here from camp fire survivors, it just moved real quick about what they wish they would have known. I think the biggest thing now is defensible space plus home protection myths, you’re actually depleting the water supply and the water pressure, what works and what doesn’t like *** baby’s diaper and our team of meteorologists breaks down the high risk areas with few evacuation routes. Why the wind makes such *** big difference. And *** brand new warning system showing you the threat level when you need it. In our case er *** three special wildfire ready. And here in California we’re seeing larger, faster moving fires during dry, hot conditions and that means fire warnings and preparations are changing for all of us. Thanks for joining us. I’m lisa Gonzalez along with chief meteorologist Mark Fine and and tonight we have the safety information that you and all of us need to know. Our team of meteorologists has been hard at work, making sure our viewers have evacuation and preparation tips that could help in case of *** fire. And last week. Another reminder about how early fires can start here in California. The coastal fire burned through multimillion dollar mansions in Orange County. It forced the evacuation of nearly 1000 homes, firefighters say with the dry weather, we’re seeing fires like this will become more common and when it comes to fire preparations, some areas are at higher risk than others. There are *** lot of neighborhoods in our region with very few evacuation routes. I spoke with sheriff’s departments around northern California about some of their greatest areas of concern. The Sierra foothills are one of the most vulnerable areas in northern California here you find the combination of dense vegetation and population. Once the fire starts here, there are some spots that might be difficult to evacuate. Let’s look at Amador County as an example from west to east. The county runs from the valley floor to the high Sierra and in between there are communities embedded in the vegetation. Amador County. Sheriff Gary Redman says his county is overdue for *** fire. We are overdue with the view fire and then the Caldor fire last year was one of those close calls and it was based on wind and that was it. Um, so it’s not *** matter of if it’s going to happen, it’s just when this will happen, there are some parts of the county that the sheriff is more worried about than others. Everything east of 49 is really my concern and with the overgrown brush and the amount of fuel we have, um, we’ve got areas up in the little town Shake ridge corridor all the way up in the Pioneer 88. Those are *** lot of our main concerns, *** network of narrow roads in this area combined with dense vegetation will make an evacuation here very difficult. The threat is extremely high. There’s *** lot of overgrown locations in Amateur County with, you know, very little uh, you know, ingress and egress out of those locations now is the time to be prepared for fire season. Amador County and most other counties have an alert system. You can sign up for, to be alerted about evacuations and other emergencies in your area. Now is the time. And and we’ve been talking about this since last year, during the Calgary fire, I go to *** lot of locations and and myself and my os coordinator. This is something we always talk about is making sure you’re on that code red notification. Amador County is just one example of the fire danger on the west slope in Placer County. The Sheriff here looks at the town of Forest Hill and the difficulty of an evacuation. El Dorado County has places like mosquito and swans borough. These are just *** few examples. There are many communities in the foothills that have difficult access in the case of an emergency if you live in one of these areas, prepare now for how to get out in case of *** fire. And one other thing I heard from the Sheriff was that they issue evacuation warnings and then orders. And he said, if you have *** difficult difficulty getting out, if you have large animals, if you have medical issues, you don’t wait for the order. Go on. The warning. Leaving early is better than leaving later. Well and like we saw with the Calgary fire, that order may come at two or three a.m. And there aren’t *** lot, there aren’t streetlights out there. So then you would be trying to evacuate in the middle of the night in sheer darkness. And that is the Sheriff’s biggest concern is trying to get people out of those relatively remote areas. Well now, we want to tell you about *** new system we’ve been working on here at KCR three. It will help homeowners assess their daily threat level when it comes to fires. Meteorologist Eileen Devora shows us how it works During fire season. It is crucial to know the days you need to be ready and alert when the weather is prime for fire conditions. Gusty north winds, low humidity. You may be familiar with hearing us talk about red flag warnings and these are issued by the National Weather Service when weather events, which may result in active fire behavior will occur within 24 hours. The type of weather patterns that cause *** red flag warning include low humidity, strong winds, dry fuels and the possibility of dry lightning or any combination of the above. Now, the National Weather Service has launched *** higher level alert called *** particularly dangerous situation or PDS you’re going to see it highlighted on our maps in *** magenta color. The PDS designation will only be used for rare events within an existing red flag warning. Already in place to issue *** PDS, sustained winds are expected to reach above 30 miles an hour humidity and single digit range during the day or very low nighttime humidity. We know these critical weather and dry conditions can lead to rapid or dramatic spread. Should *** wildfire start where it may be unstoppable, take *** situation like the camp fire. That could be *** good example of conditions where fighting back the fire becomes nearly impossible and fleeing the fire is the only option. In fact, take *** look at the strong wording in the official action statement during *** PDS issued by the National Weather Service. This is *** particularly dangerous situation with extremely low humidity and high winds. New fires will grow rapidly out of control. In some cases, people may not be able to evacuate safely in time. Should *** fire approach, we know these instances will be rare, but when *** PDS is issued, basically, it’s saying be ready to go. We should note not all fires happen during red flag warnings. In fact, the calderon dixie fires last year didn’t start on fire warning days always be prepared and have *** course of action during fire season and one new tool the KC area weather team will be using to keep you informed as fire conditions change is the fire threat index. This will give you an idea of the fire risk on any given day in different areas of our region. So you can plan ahead using our knowledge of fuel moisture levels or how dry the trees, grass and brush our humidity and wind. We can assess fire danger and we can then determine the index of fire concern and rate it from low to extreme with the highest level likely for those days. With PDS warnings. We will be showing you these on air as the weather warrants and you’ll be able to find them online at KcM dot com under the weather tab. And the importance of that fire threat index is as Eileen just mentioned that some of our biggest fires start. Not in red flag warning. So you have to be aware of just how high the fire threat is on any given day whether or not there’s *** red flag warning. We had the campfire started without *** red flag warning. We had the biggest fires last year started without red flag warning. Well, it’s good that they’re now going to start using this and we’ll have it here at K C R *** three and when we talk about fast moving fires for many people, the first thing that comes to mind Is the campfire that Marc and Ilene mentioned that was back in 2018. The town of paradise was devastated and people were trying to run from the flames. Meteorologist Melanie Hunter spoke with survivors of that fire about what they wish they would have known before it hits each person we spoke with lost their home in the campfire. I asked them what they wish they knew before the unimaginable happened. They’re hoping their stories might help others in case of another fire in the future visit paradise today. Empty lots are left with remnants of what someone once called home. *** mailbox, *** streetlight, *** pool. It’s been more than three years since the camp fire burned through this rural California town instead of *** wall of *** wall of fire moving forward steadily. It was firebombs being flung miles around the home of melissa Schuster and her husband was destroyed. *** chimney is what’s left of their former patio. Now they’re living in an RV on the property. We thought we were prepared. There wasn’t *** part of us at that time that felt that our house was going to burn across town. Mayor steve crowder was also caught off guard. He never expected to lose both his home and business. Be aware of your surroundings and how quick something can really move these days. He says people in paradise are very alert to the conditions whenever there’s *** fire anywhere. Somebody sees smoke and and smells smoke. I I start getting phone calls. That’s what everybody is living with when it comes to fast moving flames. That ridge did burn all the way up. Born and bred paradise resident Doug spikers message to others get out early. I know quite *** few people that had stayed and fought the fire around their house and after the aftermath, they kind of regretted it just because of the trauma. All three survivors we talked to have different stories but they all agree defensible space is key. Regrettably not *** very fire safe community. I don’t know that it would have changed anything, but it sure couldn’t have heard anything to be *** little more fire safe. The view from crowder’s porch looks different. Now there are fewer trees. He can see this neighbor’s house. Everybody needs to work together to keep their name. You know like this. You’ve got to keep your neighbor’s fire safe. It’s *** safety approach. So he and his neighbors don’t have to rebuild again. So we had to the Schuster’s are also hoping this is their last rebuilt. We’re creating *** walking path That will go around 32 acres that we have and which will double as *** firebreak. They’re taking precautions to make sure their home and landscaping are more fire resistant. I think it’s really important for people to think beyond the go bag and think about how they can they can prevent this from happening, so they never have to use their go bag. It’s something you never hope to grab on your way out of paradise. Mayor crowder presented at the California League of Cities Leader Summit last week. He shared the town’s lessons learned from the campfire as fires move more quickly, How do you know when to evacuate? Meteorologist Heather waldman has tips from cal fire every fire season. There are three words that you need to remember ready, set and go. Everyone should be thinking about that ready step right now, getting your, your family ready, getting your first day kit together, having your checklist available of what you would need to take on an evacuation and knowing your evacuation route better yet. No multiple evacuation routes. If *** fire is burning near your community, you should be set to react too quickly, changing conditions and orders. Is the fire close by or is it further away is your go bag and is everything ready to go in your vehicle? Your evacuation method and mode is that ready to go with that last night? The fire really started to grow in it. You should also be paying close attention to the weather forecast. And finally, when the threat from *** fire is imminent, go take your animals, take your, take your all your checklist items, take your family and leave at that point. Local law enforcement will be knocking on doors, but Chief Newman says that no one should wait for that knock to get out. Absolutely not know if again if they aren’t feeling safe or if that fire seems like it’s impacting their their community or nearby to their home, then by all means they should evacuate as soon as they think that they should waiting could risk your life and the lives of law enforcement keeping you safe. It absolutely puts us *** danger as well. So the sooner *** resident evacuate evacuates based on their assessment, then the sooner we can move on to the next area or community to make sure that they are advising any evacuations and with social media, be sure to follow reliable sources, cal fire has seen many examples of bad information being shared about developing wildfire situations. More detailed information about cal fire’s ready set go program including *** checklist of what should be in your go bag can be found at ready for wildfire dot org. For KCRA three News. I’m meteorologist Heather Waldman. Well, we know when can make fire spread faster, but what are the conditions you should be watching for that could prove challenging for firefighters. Meteorologist dirk for Dorn joins us to explain when dealing with wildfires. Wind is always *** concern, but when the wind blows from the north, the fire threat increases tremendously. That is why forecasting the wind is so important in northern California. So here’s what to look for in *** forecast that will warn you to an increase in fire danger, it all starts with pressure air flows clockwise around areas of high pressure and counter clockwise around areas of low pressure. Look for these areas of high pressure and low pressure to line up to bring about *** north wind. Usually the closer the centers of high pressure and low pressure they are together the stronger the winds will be think of high pressure as *** mountain of air and low pressure as *** valley. So the difference in pressure will create. The stronger winds. Just remember this, The higher the high and the lower the low, the faster the winds will blow. Now here’s *** forecast. This is the forecast map that you would typically see during *** newscast. You have areas of high pressure and low pressure. You can see that area of low pressure moving into the pacific northwest and dropping down over Nevada, the winds blowing around counterclockwise the area of high pressure which is sitting off the coast of California. Which is typical has those winds moving clockwise around it. And in between here we go since California, with the north wind, that north wind that brings the increased fire danger. So now that we know that the forecast calls for *** strong north wind and that that wind is on the way. Why is the north wind dangerous. Let’s take *** look at that air takes on the characteristics of the surface that it sits over. Usually *** North wind brings air that has been sitting over land. So it will be typically dry. That means low humidity. Often the humidities will be in the single digits. Low humidity makes the fuels like grasses dryer, which increases the fire danger. And also that dry north wind drops from the surrounding mountains and as it drops to the surrounding mountains it starts to heat up the temperature of the air which then dries the fuels and decreases the humidity even more, making it easier for fires to start. The North wind also gets funneled down the valleys from the surrounding mountains and the canyons and that increases the speed of the wind and that acts like *** bellows, increasing the available oxygen and the effectiveness of any spark to ignite the dry fuels. And once the fire starts, it’s next to impossible to stop the strong wind from pushing the flames along the ground at *** rapid pace as well as flinging its embers miles ahead of the fire lines creating unpredictable spot fires. The danger the north wind brings to California is real and it continues to grow as California grows dryer through each season. But hopefully, an understanding of the impact weather can have will help in the preparation, prevention and combat of this danger so dangerous. Yeah. And we get north winds in spring and fall *** little bit during the summer. But when we get them in the fall, that’s when it’s most dangerous because we already have *** dry environment and that’s our highest fire danger is in the fall. Well still ahead protecting your home in case of *** fire, we’ve heard about people using sprinklers or other methods to try to save their house. But do these methods actually help firefighters tell us what works and what doesn’t. Well over the years we have seen plenty of people take matters into their own hands trying to protect their home or business from *** fire. So which methods really work and which could actually make things worse. Meteorologist Tamra Berg has the answers. *** tense situation like *** fire can lead to some hard decisions we’ve seen and heard about some unconventional things people have done in an effort to save homes and businesses. So that’s another one I haven’t heard Daniel Berlant with cal fire has witnessed just about everything. So we asked him about three methods we’ve seen people use over the past few years. Number one snow guns, *** tool used to make snow in the winter at resorts. This proved to be handy during the caldera fire. But does it work for *** resort that has the access to the water? That is their own water. As long as there’s water to protect the structures. That’s obviously our first concern but it obviously helps number two beer. That’s right. This man dumped dozens of cans over his shop during the L. N. U. Complex fire water simply wasn’t *** choice, it was turned off. So he took matters into his own hands. Obviously adding moisture though you can help with with an ember but again just not something that’s going to withstand the high temperatures, Wind conditions and we have windy days when these fires burn, they’re gonna evaporate. Berlant says alcohol has *** certain type of flammability to it and can intensify *** fire. So putting beer on *** structure could actually be dangerous. And number three diapers Sierra at Tahoe resort said they used diapers to protect one of their buildings during the Kaldor fire. Could these be used by others? There are products for power poles for example that the utilities do used to wrap around their poles to keep them insulated from the flames of fire diapers themselves. That again, that’s the first that I’ve heard, Depending on diapers. Sprinklers, snow guns are beer to save *** home fire officials say it’s not something you should do. The amount of members. The heat that *** wildfire brings is going to be no match to the small amount of water pressure that’s coming out of *** garden hose and *** sprinkler system. Berlant says the protection method most likely to work. It’s just hardening your home and adding defensible space. Tamara Berg que CRE three news and bottom line early evacuation is key as we’ve been mentioning if *** fire is on approach, get out. Please don’t try to save your home on your own in trying to remove some of those flammable things next to your house. I know Berlin’s told me that before. Could actually help but that’s something you should have done *** long time before or doing right now. Making sure wood piles and that sort of thing or removed from your house and making sure your gutters are cleaned all that sort of thing. Things you should be doing all the time if you do have *** pool. I know Berlin told me that you could take your patio furniture and actually throw it in your pool because that stuff is very flammable and it tends to be closer to your home and it’s just one more thing that could catch *** flying ember for more resources that could help protect your family in case of *** fire check out the wildfire preparedness guide on our case. Er *** three ap we have county by county information on how to sign up for emergency alerts plus what to put in *** go bag and what to do if you’re under an evacuation warning. Well coming up tonight part two of our series wildfires and your health as our fire season gets more intense. We’re learning more about the medical impacts it could have and doctors say it’s not just high risk groups that should pay attention to pollution with high level pollution days like wildfire days everybody is at risk the specific health concerns and what communities can do to prepare. That’s coming up tonight on the K. C. R. ***. Three News at 11 and then before that right after this you’re hosting *** facebook live right mark I will be on facebook live coming up in just *** few minutes on the case. Er *** facebook page as well as my facebook page. So if you have any more questions about fire season, your community evacuation orders and warnings those can kind of be confusing. I’ll be answering any of your questions about about fire season. We’re now just getting into fire season. Grass fire season is starting in the valley soon we’ll get into the foothills and then the sierra it just kind of gradually goes over the next few months with the danger increasing between now and fall and with this drought as it continues into the second year. I know I’ve heard you say We’re not necessarily better off we’re just maybe better than we were *** year ago but it’s still bad, it is still bad, the vegetation is very dry and I think we’re going to see rapid drying in the foothills over the next month or so and that’s really when the fire season is going to ramp up in those lower elevations. Alright thank you so much for joining us again. His Facebook live starts at eight PM. Yes
2022 California Wildfire Preparedness Guide: What to know and how to stay safe
Year-round wildfires have become California’s reality as fires burn more frequently and with higher intensity. However, there are some things you can do to keep yourself and your loved ones safe. This guide provides links to our wildfire coverage with information on what to know before and during a fire. Our weather team also produced a half-hour “Wildfire Ready” special that you can watch in the video above. Here’s what you should know:WHERE TO FIND COUNTY EVACUATION INFO AND HOW TO SIGN UP FOR EMERGENCY ALERTSHere is a county-by-county resources list for KCRA 3’s coverage area to help you find important information and updates in the event of a wildfire in Northern California.This guide includes links to the websites for county offices of emergency services and law enforcement and fire agencies. It also includes where to sign up for county emergency alert notifications now and find maps that counties will use to share evacuation updates during fires.| MORE | See important links by county on wildfire resources| MORE | Wildfire evacuation route concerns: Sheriff describes neighborhoods with few escape routesUNDERSTANDING WHAT FIRE TERMS MEANFlare-ups? Containment? Evacuation warnings versus evacuation orders? The best starting point in protecting your family against wildfires is understanding what some of these commonly-used terms really mean. Find a full list in the link below:| MORE | Evacuation warnings vs. orders, forward progress and acreage: California wildfire terms to know| MORE | Understanding wildfire warnings: How to know when to be alert during fire season| MORE | Why north winds are so dangerous during California wildfire seasonsWILDFIRES NEAR ME Those who live in wildfire-prone areas should sign up for Cal Fire alerts to know immediately if one sparks nearby (here is information on where to sign up for local alerts). Residents can also access wildfire maps to stay in the know about wildfires in the area. More Fire maps:Cal Fire Active Fires of InterestFederal Incident Information SystemHOME HARDENINGThere are different ways your home can be damaged by wildfire: Direct flames from a wildfire or a neighbor’s burning home, radiant heat from nearby burning plants or structures and flying embers. Cal Fire says embers are responsible for most destruction to homes during a wildfire.With that in mind, it’s important that Californians, particularly those who live in wildfire-prone areas, take precautions to harden their homes.Some of those precautions include protecting your roof, covering vents to prevent embers, and maintaining driveways and access to roads. Click the link below for all of Cal Fire’s tips on how to best protect your home.| MORE | California fire experts recommend fire retardant to help protect homes| MORE | Preparing for California wildfires: What to know about hardening your home| MORE | Cal Fire Q&A: How to keep your family safe and home protected this fire season| MORE | Snow guns, beer and diapers: Do unusual wildfire protection strategies really work?WHAT DO I PUT IN MY GO BAGS?California officials recommend keeping an emergency supply kit ready in case of a wildfire, earthquake or another disaster.Cal Fire recommends that you store the kit of essentials in a backpack and also have a three-day supply of food and water ready to go in a tub or chest on wheels. Don’t forget baby formula if you need it, and food and water for your pets.In case of an evacuation at night, it’s also good to have a pair of shoes and a flashlight near your bed.| MORE | Here’s more information on what exactly you should be putting into your emergency supply kits.WHAT TO DO WHEN UNDER EVACUATION WARNINGSSome California residents may see their homes and neighborhoods under an evacuation warning this fire season.Although no one wants to find themselves and their families in this position, it’s important to be prepared and have a plan ahead of time.Cal Fire will send you information if there is a wildfire near you. Sign up here.| MORE | Here are some of the steps you should take once a warning has been issued — for both inside and outside your house.In addition to that, Cal Fire also recommends remembering “The Six Ps:”People and petsPapers, phone numbers and important documentsPrescriptions, vitamins and eyeglassesPictures and irreplaceable memorabiliaPersonal computer hard drive and disks”Plastic” (credit cards, ATM cards) and cash| MORE | When to evacuate a wildfire? Cal Fire chief’s advice to help protect you and emergency crew HOW CONTAINMENT PLAYS A ROLE IN FIGHTING A FIRE Californians are by now familiar with how vicious wildfires have become. Fires are not only burning hotter, but they are spreading quicker as well.So how do people know when fire crews gain the upper hand in controlling — a term that will be explained later in this article — a wildfire? Generally, people will pay attention to two numbers: acreage and containment.Acreage measures not the current size of the fire, but how many acres it has burned. Then there’s containment. Some people might turn to containment and view 100% as meaning the fire is out.That would be incorrect.| MORE | Containment: What it means and how it impacts stopping wildfiresKCRA 3’s FIRE THREAT INDEXKCRA 3 meteorologists have developed an index to track the daily risk of wildfires in parts of Northern California. The index takes into account fuel moisture, wind and humidity levels to rate the possible fire danger, from low to extreme.See below for a four-day risk level in KCRA 3’s coverage area for the Valley, coastal regions, the Foothills and the Sierra.MORE WILDFIRE RESOURCESCal FireU.S. Forest ServiceFEMAReady.GovDisasterAssistance.govCal OES Emergency Preparedness Page | GET THE KCRA 3 APP FOR THE LATEST ALERTS | Apple iOS | Android |
Year-round wildfires have become California’s reality as fires burn more frequently and with higher intensity.
However, there are some things you can do to keep yourself and your loved ones safe. This guide provides links to our wildfire coverage with information on what to know before and during a fire.
Our weather team also produced a half-hour “Wildfire Ready” special that you can watch in the video above.
Here’s what you should know:
WHERE TO FIND COUNTY EVACUATION INFO AND HOW TO SIGN UP FOR EMERGENCY ALERTS
Here is a county-by-county resources list for KCRA 3’s coverage area to help you find important information and updates in the event of a wildfire in Northern California.This guide includes links to the websites for county offices of emergency services and law enforcement and fire agencies. It also includes where to sign up for county emergency alert notifications now and find maps that counties will use to share evacuation updates during fires.
UNDERSTANDING WHAT FIRE TERMS MEAN
Flare-ups? Containment? Evacuation warnings versus evacuation orders? The best starting point in protecting your family against wildfires is understanding what some of these commonly-used terms really mean. Find a full list in the link below:
WILDFIRES NEAR ME
Those who live in wildfire-prone areas should sign up for Cal Fire alerts to know immediately if one sparks nearby (here is information on where to sign up for local alerts). Residents can also access wildfire maps to stay in the know about wildfires in the area.
More Fire maps:
There are different ways your home can be damaged by wildfire: Direct flames from a wildfire or a neighbor’s burning home, radiant heat from nearby burning plants or structures and flying embers. Cal Fire says embers are responsible for most destruction to homes during a wildfire.
With that in mind, it’s important that Californians, particularly those who live in wildfire-prone areas, take precautions to harden their homes.
Some of those precautions include protecting your roof, covering vents to prevent embers, and maintaining driveways and access to roads. Click the link below for all of Cal Fire’s tips on how to best protect your home.
WHAT DO I PUT IN MY GO BAGS?
California officials recommend keeping an emergency supply kit ready in case of a wildfire, earthquake or another disaster.
Cal Fire recommends that you store the kit of essentials in a backpack and also have a three-day supply of food and water ready to go in a tub or chest on wheels. Don’t forget baby formula if you need it, and food and water for your pets.
In case of an evacuation at night, it’s also good to have a pair of shoes and a flashlight near your bed.
WHAT TO DO WHEN UNDER EVACUATION WARNINGS
Some California residents may see their homes and neighborhoods under an evacuation warning this fire season.
Although no one wants to find themselves and their families in this position, it’s important to be prepared and have a plan ahead of time.
Cal Fire will send you information if there is a wildfire near you. Sign up here.
In addition to that, Cal Fire also recommends remembering “The Six Ps:”
- People and pets
- Papers, phone numbers and important documents
- Prescriptions, vitamins and eyeglasses
- Pictures and irreplaceable memorabilia
- Personal computer hard drive and disks
- “Plastic” (credit cards, ATM cards) and cash
HOW CONTAINMENT PLAYS A ROLE IN FIGHTING A FIRE
Californians are by now familiar with how vicious wildfires have become. Fires are not only burning hotter, but they are spreading quicker as well.
So how do people know when fire crews gain the upper hand in controlling — a term that will be explained later in this article — a wildfire? Generally, people will pay attention to two numbers: acreage and containment.
Acreage measures not the current size of the fire, but how many acres it has burned. Then there’s containment. Some people might turn to containment and view 100% as meaning the fire is out.
That would be incorrect.
KCRA 3’s FIRE THREAT INDEX
KCRA 3 meteorologists have developed an index to track the daily risk of wildfires in parts of Northern California.
The index takes into account fuel moisture, wind and humidity levels to rate the possible fire danger, from low to extreme.
See below for a four-day risk level in KCRA 3’s coverage area for the Valley, coastal regions, the Foothills and the Sierra.